Selenium is a sophisticated and frequently used web application automation tool, and one of its primary functions is to locate components on a web page. Selenium supports two basic locator mechanisms for discovering and interacting with web elements: XPath and CSS Selectors. Both tactics are successful, but each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. In this post, we’ll look at the distinctions between XPath and CSS Selectors and help you decide which locator method is appropriate for your particular automation needs.
What is a locator in Selenium?
You must carry out several actions on a web page in order to verify the functioning features at the front end of a website. These actions might include typing text into a textbox, ticking a checkbox, or clicking a button. By identifying the web components in the HTML DOM, Selenium WebDriver may be used to automate these tasks.
In Selenium, a locator, as its name implies, helps you locate the corresponding WebElement. It is an address that identifies a web page element in a unique way. Once the element has been discovered, you may work on it specifically by clicking on it or typing text into it using other supporting techniques.
Types of Locators in Selenium
Being able to utilize locators correctly requires more than just understanding their kinds. Utilizing them effectively is especially crucial when dealing with Selenium.
You can utilize a variety of selectors in your scripts. The sorts of locators that are usable with Selenium are as follows:
- Name and ID-based locators: You may choose an element using its ID, name, or tag name using these locators.
- Attribute-based locators: It resembles class names, partial link texts, and link texts. When you know at least some of the content of a link within an anchor tag, you may utilize link text and partial link text locators.
- Complex locators: This group includes XPath and CSS selectors.
Between XPath vs. CSS Selectors, the XPath (XML Path Language) is a language that may be used to traverse and select items in an XML document, but it can also be used in HTML pages. You may use XPath expressions to find certain components on a web page based on their structure and characteristics. XPath is a flexible locator approach that may be used to discover items by tag name, attributes, text content, and even DOM (Document Object Model) location.
Following are the key aspects of XPath:
- Broad compatibility across a variety of programming languages.
- Accepts attributes from HTML and XML.
- Any node that is present in an XML document can be used, and different requirements can be used to choose the appropriate locator.
- XPath expressions can return zero or any other number of results in the DOM.
- It is not necessary to use an XPath query to traverse from the top node. Any document level can use it.
- XPath expressions are declarative rather than procedural when used in programming. It is essential because, in order to discover results quickly, a query optimizer has to be free to employ indexes or other structures.
- Bilateral flow is supported by XPath. It is not feasible to traverse in both directions—from parent to child and from child to parent—with CSS. However, we can do it using an XPath.
Understanding CSS Selectors
Between XPath vs. CSS Selectors, the main purpose of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) Selectors, which are a component of the CSS language, is to style web components. But in the context of automation, CSS Selectors may also be used to find components on a webpage. Using CSS selectors, you may choose items in the DOM according to their hierarchy, attributes, and tag name.
These are the key aspects of CSS Selectors:
- Since they only have one element in their structure, they have simple syntax.
- Compared to XPath, performance is either the same or quicker.
- Easier to use and learn than XPath.
- Only unidirectional flow is permitted using CSS Selector. The only direction we can go with a CSS Selector is from parent to child; XPath allows us to traverse from child to parent.
Choosing the Right Locator Strategy
The choice between XPath and CSS Selectors largely depends on your specific automation scenario and the nature of the mobile app testing. Here are some guidelines to help you decide which strategy to use:
Simplicity vs. Versatility
If you are looking for a simple and more readable locator strategy, CSS Selectors may be the way to go. However, if you require more advanced and versatile element selection capabilities, XPath is a better choice.
If speed and efficiency are critical factors, especially in large-scale automation, CSS Selectors are generally faster and more efficient. XPath, on the other hand, may be preferred when you need to select elements based on complex criteria.
If your automation project needs to run across multiple browsers, CSS Selectors tend to offer better cross-browser compatibility. However, XPath can still be used with some browser-specific adjustments.
For beginners or those looking for a simpler learning curve, CSS Selectors are a more accessible choice. XPath, while more powerful, can be challenging to master, especially for newcomers.
Consider the nature of the elements you need to locate. If you need to select elements based on text content, attributes, or their position in the DOM, XPath provides more extensive capabilities in these areas.
Web Page Structure
The complexity of the web page structure plays a significant role in your choice. If the page structure is relatively simple, CSS Selectors may suffice. However, for complex and deeply nested structures, XPath is often more effective.
XPath and CSS Selectors are both valuable locator strategies in Selenium, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The choice between them should be based on your specific automation project’s requirements and the nature of the mobile app testing.
If you prioritize simplicity, cross-browser compatibility, and performance, CSS Selectors may be your preferred choice. However, if you need advanced element selection capabilities, are dealing with complex web page structures, or require text and position-based selection, XPath offers a more versatile solution. In practice, many automation engineers use a combination of both XPath and CSS Selectors, selecting the strategy that best fits the particular element they are trying to locate.